An Overview of Major Military Operations in the Tribal Areas of Pakistan

  • Ishrat Afshan Abbasi Sindh University, Jamshoro
  • Mukesh Kumar Khatwani Sindh University, Jamshoro
  • Mazher Hussain Assistant Professor, Department of History, the Islamia University of Bahawalpur
Keywords: Insurgency, terrorism, military operations, negotiation, reconciliation, peace agreements


In the aftermath of 9/11 scenario, the US and its coalition forces designed a joint strategy to eradicate Al-Qaeda and their supporting Taliban regime in Afghanistan. Being coalition partner against ‘war on terror’ (WoT), Pakistan deployed its military and security agencies in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Provincially Administered Tribal Areas (PATA) in order to ensure and maintain her hold in these areas. Removal of Taliban regime in Afghanistan pushed these terrorists and their supporters to flee away and find out hideouts in bordering areas such as Bajaur Agency. Consequently, the insurgents and terrorists with the support of local tribesmen launched terrorist activities in Afghanistan from the soil of Pakistan and also challenged the writ of the state of Pakistan. Realizing the sensitivity of the situation, terrorist attack on security forces and public places, Pakistan’s armed forces launched considerable military operations and campaigns against the militant groups. The major operations were launched in the course of 2003-2009 in FATA and PATA. This paper attempts to critically analyze these major actions, highlights the pros and cons of these operations and also adequacies and inadequacies of various peace agreements signed with terrorist commanders and tribesmen during that time. 

Author Biography

Mazher Hussain, Assistant Professor, Department of History, the Islamia University of Bahawalpur


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