Journal of Academic and Social Research Journal of Academic and Social Research en-US <span>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</span><br /><br /><ol type="a"><ol type="a"><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li></ol></ol><ol type="a"><ol type="a"><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ol></ol> (Journal Manager) (Editor) Sat, 05 May 2018 00:00:00 -0400 OJS 60 How EFL Teachers Want to be Supervised <p align="center"> </p><p>This paper provides a literature review of the field of teacher supervision with a focus on teachers’ voices and how they want to be supervised. The aim is to contribute to the literature on teacher supervision by reviewing studies in which teachers have articulated their beliefs and expectations regarding supervisory systems. The paper is divided into two parts. In the first part, the focus is on instructional leaders and what teachers expect from them. In the second part, the focus is on teacher involvement in the supervisory system and the importance of teacher feedback for improving supervisory systems. The paper ends with some practical considerations about making changes in supervisory systems based on teachers’ perspectives.</p><p> </p><p> </p> Adil Abdul Rehman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 05 May 2018 01:11:07 -0400 An Overview of Major Military Operations in the Tribal Areas of Pakistan <p><em>In the aftermath of 9/11 scenario, the US and its coalition forces designed a joint strategy to eradicate Al-Qaeda and their supporting Taliban regime in Afghanistan. Being coalition partner against ‘war on terror’ (WoT), Pakistan deployed its military and security agencies in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and Provincially Administered Tribal Areas (PATA) in order to ensure and maintain her hold in these areas. Removal of Taliban regime in Afghanistan pushed these terrorists and their supporters to flee away and find out hideouts in bordering areas such as Bajaur Agency. Consequently, the insurgents and terrorists with the support of local tribesmen launched terrorist activities in Afghanistan from the soil of Pakistan and also challenged the writ of the state of Pakistan. Realizing the sensitivity of the situation, terrorist attack on security forces and public places, Pakistan’s armed forces launched considerable military operations and campaigns against the militant groups. The major operations were launched in the course of 2003-2009 in FATA and PATA. </em><em>This paper attempts to critically analyze these major actions, highlights the pros and cons of these operations and also adequacies and inadequacies of various peace agreements signed with terrorist commanders and tribesmen during that time. </em></p> Ishrat Afshan Abbasi, Mukesh Kumar Khatwani, Mazher Hussain ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 05 May 2018 01:11:08 -0400 Differance in the Discourse of Catherine and Henry in Hemingway’s A Farewell to Arms: A Poststructural Approach <p>Abstract: <em>This study aimed to make the poststructural analysis of Hemingway’s</em> A Farewell to Arms<em> with the help Derrida’s concept of Differance. The study found that there is a complete disparity between the meaning that these characters try to convey and the one that the contextual analysis of their discourse establishes when viewed through the spectrum of differance. The findings lead to the conclusion that for real happiness in life one must establish genuinely sympathetic and empathic relations with other. Only love and compassion can make life meaningful. It is an individual’s responsibility to explore his or her choices and opt for them bravely. To get rid of the absurdity of life one must make drastic decision and daring use of options available to one, otherwise the coercive structure of the society will crush their individuality.</em></p><p> </p> Mohsin Khan, Ghulam Mustafa Mashori, Abdullah Joyo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 05 May 2018 01:11:08 -0400 Interaction patterns in Whatsapp conversation in EFL classroom: pedagogical implications <p>Two corpora of online conversation on a mobile phone application Whatsapp by two EFL groups were analysed to examine the types and quality of online interaction in EFL context. The analysis focused on three main categories, i.e. nature of interaction, quality of interaction and quality of language of interaction, to assess if using the application in classroom setting provided enhanced learning experience with greater support and exposure to target language. We categorised interaction types in the corpora to determine the variety of interaction, and used the numerical data to scaffold descriptive analysis of the quality of interaction as well as language. Analysis of the corpora revealed that the participants preferred using the application more for administrative communication, rather than discussing the subject matter and meta-language, mainly due to unplanned use of the application, and the students therefore missing the opportunity to process the target language in real life. The findings referred to conversational theory in relation to theoretical and pedagogical implication of using Whatsapp more effectively, for enhanced learning opportunities in EFL classroom.</p><p> </p> Pir Suhail Ahmed Sarhandi, Jabreel Asghar, Ali Ahmad Abidi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 05 May 2018 01:11:08 -0400 Awakening a sleeping giant in the Arabian gulf: A need for teacher leadership in hierarchical leadership structures <p><em>This article introduces the concept of teacher leadership in the Saudi EFL context. Teacher leadership is a commonly used term in the western school contexts which aims to empower teachers by making them part of a decision-making stream and giving them opportunities to exercise leadership and influence colleagues, students and school administrators in a bid to improve instructional practices. As Saudi educational institutions mainly operate in rigid hierarchical structures, teachers in leadership roles have limited or no powers to influence change. Keeping in view the significant role of teacher leaders in organisational effectiveness, this paper highlights the importance of teacher leadership in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) of a Saudi Arabian university which has a typical top-down management model. It explains the nature of leadership practices in Saudi higher education institutions and how they may hinder the process of teacher leadership in EFL institutes. The paper also suggests ways that can help the top leadership to foster teacher leadership practices in the Saudi EFL context.</em></p> Sayyed Rashid Shah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 05 May 2018 01:11:08 -0400 Saudi students' experiences learning English in English as foreign and second language settings This study aims to shed light on the reasons that influence Saudi students’ learning experiences, self-esteem, and attitudes in English language education in the EFL context as linked to their language proficiency. However, Saudi students’ experiences differed in the ESL context, as the study’s findings revealed. This study was conducted to understand the students’ perspectives about their different language learning experiences in ESL and EFL settings. The participants in this study were ten students who had learned English in both EFL and ESL classrooms, which gave the study a clear understanding of the English language learning circumstances in both environments. A qualitative approach was used in this study to enable the researcher to discover the participants’ English language learning experiences and to assist the researcher to learn extensively about those experiences. Moreover, the data analysis revealed that the students’ experiences were influenced by certain factors in the EFL context. The data findings showed that the Saudi students’ experiences in EFL differed from those in ESL in terms of their self-esteem, attitude. The students reported that each learning context contributed to their learning in a different manner. EFL contributed to their basic English to some extent, regardless of its accompanying negative factors; however, ESL contributed more effectively to their language acquisition, with positive factors that they found more relevant to their success in the language.<br /><br /> Nagah Awad Alzaharani ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 05 May 2018 01:11:08 -0400